One in a million’: Super Earth found 25,000 light years away from our planet

The Astronomers from the University of Canterbury in New Zealand have found a new planet in the galaxy that bears several similarities to our planet Earth. The planet is reportedly called as ‘One In A Million planet’, as mankind has always been searching for a planet similar to Earth. However, as per their observations, the planet is huge and bigger in comparison to our planet.

Astronomers discover Super-Earth 25,000 light-years away from Earth

The Astronomers from the University of Canterbury have recently discovered a new planet orbiting around a dim dwarf star or a brown dwarf which is located 25,000 light-years away from us, which is in the centre of the Milky Way. The planet takes around 617 Earth days to complete a full orbit around its host star. However, in comparison to the sun, the dwarf star is only about one-tenth of the mass of the sun. But, the Super-Earth is significantly larger than Earth and can be considered to be as big as Neptune. The distance between the newly found alien planet and the host star is similar to between where Earth and Venus orbit around the sun.

The scientists from the University of Canterbury have observed the alien planet using the gravitational microlensing technique. This means that the scientists watched how the dwarf star and the Super-Earth warped and magnified light. The technique is used by aligning the telescope in a certain way that a large object and a target are lined up properly so that the light coming from the target becomes warped due to the presence of the large object. However, this is considered to be an extremely rare event. A statement released by the University of Canterbury in New Zealand also said that this is a ‘one in a million’ occurrence.

The study reveals the Super-Earth is located 25,000 light-years away from Earth. It is unclear if the planet can host any type of life as the temperature of its star is unknown. The researchers further explained that if the star emits high levels of radiation, then the planet will most likely be unfavourable for life.

#EARTH#LEAVING PLANET

Contract of Bailment and Pledge

Bailment and Pledge are two special contracts that are often confused. Every pledge is a bailment but every bailment is not pledge[1]. Bailment means a delivery of goods from one person to another for a special purpose. Whereas Pledge means delivery of goods as security for the payment of debt or performance of a promise. Therefore, Bailment & Pledge are two different contracts. Pledge is a special kind of bailment.

Bailment

A bailment is a special contract defined under section 148 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. It is derived from a French word i.e. “bailer” which means “to deliver”[2]. The etymological meaning of bailment is “handing over”or “change of possession of goods”. By bailment, we mean delivery of goods from one person to another for a special purpose on the contract that they shall reimburse the goods on the fulfilment of the purpose or dispose of them as per the direction of the bailor. The person who delivers the goods is known as bailor. And the person to whom the goods are given is known as Bailee. And the property bailed is known as Bailed Property.

Essentials of Bailment

  • There shall be a contract between the parties for the delivery of goods,
  • The goods shall be delivered for a special purpose only,
  • Bailment can only be done for movable goods and not for immovable goods or money,
  • There shall be a transfer of possession of goods,
  • Ownership is not transferred to Bailee, therefore Bailor remains the owner,
  • Bailee is duty bound to deliver the same goods back and not any other goods.

Duties of a Bailor

Section 150 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 bound the bailor with certain duties to disclose the latent facts specifically pertaining to defect in goods. Bailor’s duty of disclosure are:

  • Gratuitous Bailment: It is the duty of the bailor to disclose all the defects in the goods that he is aware of to the Bailee that can interfere with the use of goods or can expose him to extraordinary risks. And failure to do the same will make bailor liable for damages.
  • Non Gratuitous Bailment (Bailment for Reward):This duty particularly deals with the goods given on hire. As per this provision, when the goods are bailed for hire, then in such a situation even if the bailor is aware of the defect in the goods or not will be held liable for the injury that has been caused due to the existence of such defect.

In Hyman v Nye & Sons[3], the plaintiff took a carriage on hire from the defendant but the carriage was not fit for the journey and subsequently, the plaintiff suffered injuries. The court held that even though the defendant was aware of such defect or not he shall be liable.

for the journey and subsequently, the plaintiff suffered injuries. The court held that even though the defendant was aware of such defect or not he shall be liable.

Duties of Bailee

Bailee has to fulfil several obligations as per Indian Contract Act, 1872. That is:

  • Duty to take reasonable care: It is the duty of the Bailee to take care of goods as his own goods. He shall ensure all safety measures that are necessary to protect the goods. The standard of care should be such as taken care by a prudent man. The goods shall be taken care of equally whether they are gratuitous or non-gratuitous. The Bailee shall be held liable for payment of compensation if he fails to take due care. But if the Bailee has taken due care and instead of that the goods are damaged then in such a situation Bailee will not be liable to pay compensation. The Bailee is not liable for the loss of goods due to destruction by fire[4]. (Section 151-152)
  • Duty not to make unauthorized use of the goods:Bailee is duty bound to use the goods for a specific purpose only and not otherwise. If he uses the goods for any other purpose than what is agreed for then the bailor has the right to terminate such bailment or is entitled with compensation for damage caused due to unauthorized use. (Section 153-154)
  • Duty not to mix bailor’s goods with his own goods: It is the duty of the Bailee not to mix bailor’s goods with his own. But if he wants to do the same then he shall seek consent from the bailor for mixing of goods. If the bailor agrees for the mixing of the goods then the interest in the mixed goods shall be shared in proportion. In case, Bailee without the consent of bailor mixes the goods with his own then two situations arise: goods can be separated and goods can’t be separated. In the former case the Bailee has to bear the cost of separation and in the latter case since there is the loss of the goods, therefore, bailor shall be entitled with damages of such loss. (Section 155-157)
  • Duty to return the goods on the fulfilment of purpose:Bailee is duty bound to return the goods once the purpose is achieved or on the expiry of the time period for which the goods were bailed. But if the Bailee makes default in returning the goods on proper time then he will be responsible with the loss, destruction or deterioration of the goods if any. (Section 160-161)

In the case of Bank of India v. Grains & Gunny Agencies the court held that if the goods are lost or destroyed due to the negligence of servant of Bailee, then in such case as well Bailee shall be liable.

  • Duty to deliver to the bailor increase or profit if any on the goods bailed:The Bailee has a duty to return the goods along with increase or profit subject to contract to the contrary. Accretion that has accrued from the bailed goods is the part of the bailed goods and therefore bailor has the right over such accretions if any. And such accretions shall be handed over to the bailor along with the goods bailed. For instance, A leaves a cow in the custody of B and cow gives birth to the calf. Then B is duty bound to hand over the bailed goods along with accretion to the bailor. (Section 163)

Rights of a Bailor

As such Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not provide for Rights of a Bailor. But Rights of a Bailor is same as Duties of the Bailee i.e. Rights of Bailor = Duties of Bailee[7]. So the rights of bailor are:

  • Enforcement of Bailee’s Duty:Since Right of the bailor is same as the right of the Bailee, therefore on the fulfilment of all duties of Bailee the bailor’s right is accomplished. For example, it is the duty of the Bailee to give the accretions and it is the right of bailor to demand the same.
  • Right to claim damages: If the Bailee fails to take care of the goods, the bailor has the right to claim damages for such loss. (Section 151)
  • Right to Termination the Contract: If the Bailee does not comply with the terms of the contract and acts in a negligent manner in such case the bailor has the right to rescind the contract. (Section 153)
  • Right to claim compensation: If the Bailee uses the goods for an unauthorized purpose or mixes the goods which cause loss of goods in such case bailor has the right to claim compensation.
  • Right to demand the return of goods: It is the duty of the Bailee to return the goods and the bailor has the right to demand the same.

Rights of a Bailee

  • Right to recover expenses:In the contract of Bailment, the Bailee incurs expenses to ensure the safety of goods. The Bailee has the right to recover such expenses from the bailor. (Section 158)
  • Right to remuneration: When the goods are bailed to the Bailee he is entitled to receive certain remuneration for services that he has rendered. But in case of gratuitous bailment, the Bailee is not awarded any remuneration.
  • Right to recover compensation:At times a situation arises wherein bailor did not have the capacity to contract for bailment. Such a contract causing loss to the Bailee, therefore the Bailee has the right to recover such compensation from the bailor. (Section 168)
  • Right to Lien:Bailee has the right over Lien. By this, we mean that if the bailor fails to make payment of remuneration or does not pay the amount due, the Bailee has the right to keep the goods bailed in his possession till the time debtor dues are cleared. Lien is of two types: particular lien and general lien. (Section 170-171)

In the case of Surya Investment Co. v. S.T.C[8], the court held that expenses incurred by Bailee during preservation of goods under lien shall be borne by bailor.

  • Right to suit against a wrongdoer:After the goods have been bailed and any third party deprives the Bailee of use of such goods, then the Bailee or bailor can bring an action against the third party. (Section 180)

Pledge

Pledge is a kind of bailment. Pledge is also known as Pawn.It is defined under section 172 of the Indian Contract Act, 1892. By pledge, we mean bailment of goods as a security for the repayment of debt or loan advanced or performance of an obligation or promise. The person who pledges the goods as security is known as Pledger or Pawnor and the person in whose favour the goods are pledged is known as Pledgee or Pawnee.

Essentials of Pledge

Since Pledge is a special kind of bailment, therefore all the essentials of bailment are also the essentials of the pledge. Apart from that, the other essentials of the pledge are:

  • There shall be a bailment for security against payment or performance of the promise,
  • The subject matter of pledge is goods,
  • Goods pledged for shall be in existence,
  • There shall be the delivery of goods from pledger to pledgee,
  • There is no transfer of ownership in case of the pledge.

Rights of Pawnor

As per Section 177 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 the Pawnor has the Right to Redeem. By this, we mean that on the repayment of the debt or the performance of the promise, the Pawnor can redeem the goods or property pledged from the Pawnee before the Pawnee makes the actual sale. The right of redemption is extinguished once the actual sale is done by the Pawnee as per his right under section 176 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872[9].

Rights of a Pawnee

The rights of the Pawnee as per Indian Contract Act, 1872 are:

  • Right to retain the goods: If the Pawnor fails to make the payment of a debt or does not perform as per the promise made, the Pawnee has the right to retain the goods pledged as security. Moreover, Pawnee can also retain goods for non-payment of interest on debt or non-payment of expenses incurred. But Pawnee cannot retain goods for any other debt or promise other than that agreed for in the contract. (Section 173-174)
  • Right to recover extraordinary expenses: The expenses incurred by Pawnee on the preservation of goods pledged can be recovered from Pawnor. (Section 175)
  • The right of suit to procure debt and sale of pledged goods: On the failure to make repayment to Pawnee of the debt, the Pawnee has two right: either to initiate suit proceedings against him or sell the goods. In the former case, the Pawnee retains the goods with himself as collateral security and initiate the court proceedings. He need not provide any notice of such proceedings to the Pawnor[10]. And in the latter case, the Pawnee can sell the goods after giving due notice of sale to the Pawnor. If the amount received from the sale of goods is less than the amount due then the rest amount can be recovered from Pawnor. And if the Pawnee gets more amount than the due amount then such surplus is to be given back to Pawnor. (Section 176)

Principal of natural justice – “Rule against bias”

1) Quasi – judicial authority is obligated to the canons of natural justice

2) natural justice is a procedural safeguards.

3) if checks the arbitrary excise of the power by the state functionaries.

4) it is expandable flexible pragmatic and relative concept.

5) it helps the authorities to arrive at right decision.

6) Rules of natural justice are not codified.

Features of principal of natural justice

1.Secure justice prevents miscarriage of justice.

2.Principal of natural justice not fixed but flexible and variable .

3.Adds on with statute.

4.Mandatory.

5.To check arbitrary.

6.Principal of natural justice may not be applied blindly.

7.Duty to act fairly is presumed when as offices.

Rule against bias is based on a legal maxim ” nemo in Pretoria cause Jude, esse debet”.

1. No one should be a judge for his own cause or case.

2. The decision maker should be opened to persuasion.

3. Bias means conscious or unconscious prejudice.

BIAS

Malice, spite or ill- will.

Malice in law and malice in fact .

Type of bias

1. Pecuniary bias

2.Personal bias

3.Subject matter bias

4. Departmental bias official bias

5. Pre- conceived nation bias

administrative law

DEFINITION OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

K.C DAVIS :- law concerning powers and procedures of administrative agency including the law governing judicial review of administrative action

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

ELEMENTS :- administrative bodies, administrative tribunals , officials

SOURCES :- constitutional law , statutory law, judge made laws , agency made law

REASONS FOR THE GROWTH OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

Growth of administrative law and functions

Shift from laissez fair system to the social welfare state

State activism and multiple roles played by state service provides active instruments of socio-economic policy economic regulation

In india administrative law is basically principal based

Drawn substantially from the constitutinal law

Urbanisation

technicality

preventive measures

Flexibility

emergency situation

inadequacy of judicail measures

Complexity of modern day of administrative

SOURSCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN USA

Administrative procedure ACT 1893

Statutory instruments ACT 1946

Federal tort claims ACT 1947

Tribunals and enquiry ACT 1958

Parlimentary lommitees ACT 1962

Constitution of USA [precedents ]

GOLDEN TRIANGLE

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ARTICLE- 21PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PERSONAL LIBERTY – No person shall be deprived of his life and personal Lerbity except according to procedures established by law.

Right to life and personal liberty includes Right to privacy as an integral part guaranteed under part – 3 of the constitution.

ARTICLE- 19 RIGHT TO FREEDOM – protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech,- (1) All citizens shall have the right-

(a) To freedom of speech and expression;

(b) To assemble peaceable and with out arms;

(c) To form associations or unions or co- operative societies;

(d) To move freely throughout the territory of India;

(e) To reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and

(g) To practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

ARTICLE- 14 – RIGHT TO Equality

EQUALITY BEFORE LAW – The state shall not deny to any person…

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Faith, belief and superstition

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The closeness of death made belief – and its opposite- a pressing issue for the millions of men serving on the front and for those left behind at home. The soeity of the was day profoundly regious one, with Faith intregate into all aspects of life. Yet the religious picture of pre-war society was also a complex one , with a dense range of belief and superstition varying from village to village and region to region,as much as from one soul to the next. Russian serfs Punjabi volunteers , Lyonnias republican different in their belief ,unbelief, conformity and commitment as much as they sharing a common view of life and death.

Superstition and fatalism

It is hard for historians to measure, or even define, what Faith meant for men at the front . For societies deeply infused with religion tradition and practice ,it seems only natural that religious symbols were…

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Oia, santorini, greece

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Located on top of a cliff with a spectacular view of the Palea volcano, Nea Kameni, and the island of Thirassia, Oia is the most popular and arguably the most beautiful of all the picturesque villages of the Greek island ofsantorini. Only about 11 km from Fira, on the north of the island, Oia will charm you with its traditional stone houses lining the narrow streets, breathtaking blue-domed churches, and sunbaked verandas.

While the village has its share of taverns, souvenir shops, and cafes, Oia is more quiet and laid-back than busy Fira and most people enjoy its quaint beauty by slowly exploring its narrow streets. Stroll through the village’s small port of Ammoudi by descending 300 steps down the cliff, or visit colorful galleries showcasing art from the many artists who fell in love with the village and made it their home. Oia, Santorini is considered by many…

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