Regional Transport Office.

Regional Transport Office (RTO)

The Motor Vehicles Department has been established under section 213(1) of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. This is a central act applicable throughout the country. Motor vehicle department is responsible for enforcing various provisions of this act. This department is headed by the Transport Commissioner.

Every state and city have their own RTO (Regional Transport Office). Every R.T.O is responsible to carry out the functions and activities that are laid out in Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

Functions of the Regional Transport Office (R.T.O)

  • Enforce the provisions of the various acts of Motor Vehicles, the central motor vehicles rules and the state motor vehicles rules as laid down by the government from time to time.
  • Ensure co-ordinated development of road transport through management of permit .
  • Charge and collect tax as per the provisions of the vehicles act .

Activities performed by RTO

  • Registration of vehicles
  • Motor vehicle tax collection
  • Issue of licenses for public transit and freight traffic
  • Conduct driving test and issue Learner’s and Permanent driver’s license and renewing the same
  • Maintain database of registered vehicles
  • Vehicle transfer and registration of mortgage transactions
  • Maintaining a proper check on the validity of Insurance on motor vehicles
  • Mechanical inspection of accidental vehicles
  • Grant certificate of fitness to transport vehicles
  • Issue badges to the drivers of public services vehicles like Auto rickshaws and Taxis
  • Issue International driving permits.
  • Vehicle Registration at Regional Transport Office

    Owning a motor vehicle is a dream for most people living in India. If an individual wishes to drive the vehicle in the country, he has to go through the vehicle registration process that is mandatory as per the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

    Documents required for vehicle registration process at Regional Transport Office:

    • Form 20 i.e. application form for registration of the vehicle
    • Age and address proof documents
    • Passport size photographs
    • Form 21 i.e. sales certificate of the vehicle
    • Form 22 i.e. roadworthiness certificate
    • PUC certificate
    • Insurance of the vehicle to be registered
    • For registration of an imported vehicle, customs clearance certificate is required
    • Sales tax certificate, if the vehicle has been bought from one state and has to be registered in the other.
    • No Objection Certificate from RTO and dealer has to be submitted if the vehicle is bought in one state and registered in another state.
    • Temporary registration number
    • Invoice of the vehicle
    • Design approval has to be obtained from Transport Minister for registration of semi-trailer and trailer vehicles
    • Form 34, in case of loan hypothecation
    • Applicable application fees has to be paid

    The vehicle owner will have to visit the RTO with the above documents. The documents need to be submitted and the applicable application fee has to be paid. On verification of the documents and inspection of the vehicle, the vehicle number is issued to the vehicle owner. After 7 days, a registration certificate is issued that acts as a proof stating the registration of the vehicle.

    Re-Registration of a Motor Vehicle in New State

    Re-registration of a motor vehicle can be done if the motor vehicle is moved to a different state. The documents required for re-registration of the vehicle are pretty much the same in addition to which NOC has to be obtained from the vehicle financer and the original registering certificate has to be submitted. On submitting the documents and paying the application fee, the vehicle is re-registered within a span of 15 days.

    Transfer of Vehicle Ownership at Regional Transport Office

    Transfer of vehicle ownership can be done by

    • Application for transfer of vehicle ownership which has to be made in Form 29 and 30
    • If the vehicle is registered in another state, NOC has to be obtained from the RTO where the vehicle was first registered.
    • NOC has to be obtained from the financer if the vehicle is purchased through finance
    • PUC certificate
    • Vehicle insurance certificate
    • Applicable application fees and road taxes
    • Registration certificate of the vehicle
    • Affidavit stating the sale and purchase of the vehicle
    • Age and address proof documents along with passport size photographs.

Hindu marriage act 1955

The following is a summary of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, which aims to allow a reader to understand the key points within the Act without having to read the Act itself.


India, being a cosmopolitan country, allows each citizen to be governed under personal laws relevant to religious views. This extends to personal laws inter alia in the matter of marriage and divorce.

As part of the Hindu Code Bill, the Hindu Marriage Act was enacted by Parliament in 1955 to amend and to codify marriage law between Hindus. As well as regulating the institution of marriage (including validity of marriage and conditions for invalidity), it also regulates other aspects of personal life among Hindusand the applicabilityof such lives in wider Indian society.

The Hindu Marriage Act provides guidance for Hindus to be in a systematic marriage bond. It gives meaning to marriage, cohabiting rights for both the bride and groom, and a safety for their family and children so that they do not suffer from their parental issues.


The Act applies to all forms of Hinduism (for example, to a person who is a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or AryaSamam) and also recognises offshoots of the Hindu religion as specified in Article 44 of the Indian Constitution. Notably, these include Jains and Buddhists. The Act also applies to anyone who is a permanent resident in the India who is not Muslim, Jew, Christian, or Parsi by religion.

Although the Act originally applied to Sikhs as well, the AnandKarj Marriage Act gives Sikhs their own personal law related to marriage.

Although the Act originally did not apply to citizens in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the effect of the J&K Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 made it applicable.

Conditions for marriage

Section 5 of The Hindu Marriage Act specifies that conditions must be met for a marriage to be able to take place. If a ceremony takes place, but the conditions are not met, the marriage is either void by default, or voidable.

Void marriages

A marriage may be declared void if it contravenes any of the following:

  1. Either party is under age.The bridegroom should be of 21 years of age and the bride of 18 years.
  2. Either party is not of a Hindu religion.Both the bridegroom and the bride should be of the Hindu religion at the time of marriage.
  3. Either party is already married. The Act expressively prohibits polygamy. A marriage can only be solemnized if neither party has a living spouse at the time of marriage.
  4. The parties are sapindas or within the degree of prohibited relationship.

Voidable marriages

A marriage may later be voidable (annulled) if it contravenes any of the following:

  1. Either party is impotent, unable to consummate the marriage, or otherwise unfit for the procreation of children.
  2. One party did not willingly consent. In order to consent, both parties must be sound of mind and capable of understanding the implications of marriage. If either party suffers from a mental disorder or recurrent attacks of insanity or epilepsy, then that may indicate that consent was not (or could not be) given. Likewise, if consent was forced or obtained fraudulently, then the marriage may be voidable.
  3. The bride was pregnant by another man other then the bridegroom at the time of the marriage.


Section 7 of the Hindu Marriage Act recognises that there may be different, but equally valid ceremonies and customs of marriage. As such, Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either the bride or the groom. These rites and ceremonies include the Saptapadi and Kreva.

Registering a marriage

A marriage cannot be registered unless the following conditions are fulfilled:

  1. a ceremony of marriage has been performed; and
  2. the parties have been living together as husband and wife

Additionally,the parties must have been residing within the district of the Marriage Officer for a period of not less than thirty days immediately preceding the date on which the application is made to him for registration.

Section 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act allowsastate government to make rules for the registration of Hindu marriages particular to that state, particularly with respect to recording the particulars of marriage as may be prescribed in the Hindu Marriage Register.

Registration provides written evidenceof marriage. As such, the Hindu Marriage Register should be open for inspection at all reasonable times (allowing anyone to obtain proof of marriage) and should be admissible as evidence in a court of law.


Although marriage is held to be divine, the Hindu Marriage Act does permit either party to divorce on the grounds of unhappiness, or if he or she can prove that the marriage is no longer tenable.

A petition for divorce usually can only be filed one year after registration. However, in certain cases of suffering by the petitioner or mental instability of the respondent, a court may allow a petition to be presented beforeone year.

Grounds for divorce

A marriage may be dissolved by a court order on the following grounds:

  1. Adultery – the respondent has had voluntary sexual intercourse with a man or a woman other than the spouse after the marriage.
  2. Cruelty – the respondent has physically or mentally abused the petitioner.
  3. Desertion – the respondent has deserted the petitioner for a continuous period of not less than two years.
  4. Conversion to another religion – the respondent has ceased to be a Hindu and has taken another religion.
  5. Unsound mind – the respondent has been diagnosed since the marriage ceremony as being unsound of mind to such an extent that normal married life is not possible.
  6. Disease – the respondent been diagnosed with an incurable form of leprosy or has venereal disease in acommunicable form.
  7. Presumption of death – the respondent has not been seen alive for seven years or more.
  8. No resumption of cohabitation after a decree of judicial separation for a period of at least one year.

In addition, a wife may also seek a divorce on the grounds that:

  1. In case of marriagesthat took place before the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 was enacted, the husband was already married and that any other wife of thehusband was alive at the time of the marriage ceremony.
  2. The husband, after marriage, has been found guilty of rape, sodomy or bestiality.
  3. Co-habitation has not been resumedwithin a yearafter an order for maintenance under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code or alternatively, under the Hindu Adoptions & Maintenance Act 1956.
  4. The wife was under-age when she marriedand she repudiates the marriage before attaining the age of 18 years.

Alimonies (permanent maintenance)

At the time of the decree of divorce or at any subsequent time, the court may decide that one party should pay to the other an amount for maintenance and support. This could be a one off payment, or a periodical (such as monthly) payment. The amount to be paid is at the discretion of the court.


Remarriage is possible once a marriage has been dissolved by a decree of divorce and no longer able to be appealed (whether there was no right of appeal in the first place, or whether the time for appealing has expired, or whether an appeal has been presented but dismissed


ARTICLE- 21PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PERSONAL LIBERTY – No person shall be deprived of his life and personal Lerbity except according to procedures established by law.

Right to life and personal liberty includes Right to privacy as an integral part guaranteed under part – 3 of the constitution.

ARTICLE- 19 RIGHT TO FREEDOM – protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech,- (1) All citizens shall have the right-

(a) To freedom of speech and expression;

(b) To assemble peaceable and with out arms;

(c) To form associations or unions or co- operative societies;

(d) To move freely throughout the territory of India;

(e) To reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and

(g) To practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

ARTICLE- 14 – RIGHT TO Equality

EQUALITY BEFORE LAW – The state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the law with in the territory of India.

Ram Jethmalani

Ram Jethmalani:13 Things know About India’s Most Famous Defence

Ram Boolchand Jethmalani was an Indian lawyer and politician. He served as India’s Union minister of law and justice, as chairman of the Indian Bar Council, and as the president of the Supreme Court Bar Association. He is noted in the Indian legal fraternity for his forte in criminal law and high-profile civil cases.Died: 8 September 2019 Trending
Born: 14 September 1923,Shikapur, Pakistan.
Office: Member of Rajya Sabha since 2016
“Age is an issue of mind over matter, if you don’t mind it doesn’t matter” – Mark Twain.

Here are some things that you ought to know about this maverick lawyer:

1. Born in 1923 in Shikarpur, Ram Jethmalani was a bright student and got a triple promotion when in school.

2. Ram Jethmalani obtained a law degree when he was all of 17 and practised law in Karachi until the partition of India. He chose to study law and pursue it despite opposition from his father.

3. Being the youngest lawyer in Sind, he had to persuade the then Chief Justice of Sind to pass a special resolution to relax the rules (which then mandated that a lawyer had to be 21 years or above), and allow him to practice.

4. He moved to Bombay just after India attained freedom in 1948 and started practising there.

5. In 1959, Ram Jethmalani appeared in the famous K.M. Nanavati vs. State of Bombay case. This was among the last cases to be heard as a jury trial in India, as the government abolished jury trials soon after.

6. He earned a reputation of being a ‘smuggler’s lawyer’ after he defended Haji Mastan, in a smuggling case.

7. He was elected a member of Parliament in the 6th and 7th Lok Sabha on a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ticket from Bombay.

4. He moved to Bombay just after India attained freedom in 1948 and started practising there.

5. In 1959, Ram Jethmalani appeared in the famous K.M. Nanavati vs. State of Bombay case. This was among the last cases to be heard as a jury trial in India, as the government abolished jury trials soon after.

6. He earned a reputation of being a ‘smuggler’s lawyer’ after he defended Haji Mastan, in a smuggling case.

7. He was elected a member of Parliament in the 6th and 7th Lok Sabha on a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ticket from Bombay.

8. He has served as Law Minister of India and also as Minister of Urban Development during the Prime Ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. He later went on to contest the general elections of 2004 against Atal Bihari Vajpayee from the Lucknow constituency.

9. In 2013, Ram Jethmalani was expelled from BJP, for accusing it of being “silent against high corruption”

10. From defending the killers of the former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to the Dalal street scammers Harshad Mehta and Ketan Parekh. From opposing the death sentence of Afzal Guru to representing clients like Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam MP Kanimozhi, he has defended them all with the same gusto and belief.

11. In 1987, at the age of 64, Ram Jethmalani announced his candidature for the President’s post. He also launched a political front and called it Bharat Mukti Morcha.

12. In 1995 he launched his own political party called ‘Pavitra Hindustan Kazhagam’, with a motto to achieve transparency in the functioning of Indian Democracy.

13. In more recent occurrences, he made news for having sent the Delhi Government a bill of over 1.5 crores for appearing for Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal in a defamation suit.

Oia, santorini, greece

Located on top of a cliff with a spectacular view of the Palea volcano, Nea Kameni, and the island of Thirassia, Oia is the most popular and arguably the most beautiful of all the picturesque villages of the Greek island of santorini. Only about 11 km from Fira, on the north of the island, Oia will charm you with its traditional stone houses lining the narrow streets, breathtaking blue-domed churches, and sunbaked verandas.

While the village has its share of taverns, souvenir shops, and cafes, Oia is more quiet and laid-back than busy Fira and most people enjoy its quaint beauty by slowly exploring its narrow streets. Stroll through the village’s small port of Ammoudi by descending 300 steps down the cliff, or visit colorful galleries showcasing art from the many artists who fell in love with the village and made it their home. Oia, Santorini is considered by many one of the prettiest places in the world. Best Beaches in Greece

More romantic getaways

Noni fruit

What is noni juice and its health benefits

  • Lowers risk of gout. Caused by the build-up of uric acid crystals in the joint, gout is a kind of arthritis which causes joint pain.
  • Improves skin quality.
  • Good for people suffering from arthritis.
  • Anti-ageing.
  • Prevents cancer.
  • Reduces stress.
  • Boosts immunity.
  • Treats fever.

While the name may sound odd, noni juice is derived from the fruit of a small evergreen plant called noni – also known as Indian mulberry – normally found in global subtropics and tropics. Lucky for us, the health benefits abound noni juice may offer protection and functioning of the liver, maintenance of cardiovascular health, and blood sugar control, and relief from memory loss. The immense antioxidant potential of noni juice also exerts antipsychotic, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects which are valuable in giving relief from conditions such as arthritis and some central nervous system disorders.